Faecal calprotectin is a biochemical measurement of the protein calprotectin in the stool. Elevated faecal calprotectin indicates the migration of neutrophils to the intestinal mucosa, which occurs during intestinal inflammation, including inflammation caused by inflammatory bowel disease. Under a specific clinical scenario, the test may eliminate the need for invasive colonoscopy or radio-labelled white cell scanning.
Calprotectin is a complex of the mammalian proteins S100A8 and S100A9. In the presence of calcium, calprotectin is capable of sequestering the transition metals iron, manganese and zinc via chelation. This metal sequestration affords the complex antimicrobial properties. Calprotectin is the only known antimicrobial manganese sequestration protein complex. Calprotectin comprises as much as 60% of the soluble protein content of the cytosol of a neutrophil, and it is secreted by an unknown mechanism during inflammation. Faecal calprotectin has been used to detect intestinal inflammation and can serve as a biomarker for inflammatory bowel diseases and rheumatoid arthritis. Other names for calprotectin include MRP8-MRP14, calgranulin A and B, cystic fibrosis antigen, L1, 60BB antigen, and 27E10 antigen.
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